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Manidae - pangolins

sunda pangolinThere are eight species in this family. Pangolins are also called scaly anteaters. They are found in Africa and Asia. Most pangolin species are nocturnal. They range in size from one-three feet in length.

Pangolins don't have teeth! They use their long, strong front claws and long, muscular tongues to excavate insects like termites and ants. They use their highly developed sense of smell to locate insects.

Pangolins are covered with razor sharp scaly plates. When a pangolin is threatened, it curls up in a ball to protect its vulnerable undersides!

The pangolin's scales are made of keratin. Keratin is what is found in animal horns, human fingernails, claws, and reptile and turtle shells. The pangolin is the only mammal with keratin scales. Pangolins are born with soft scales that harden as they get older.

Pangolins also have long, curved front claws. Their front claws are so long that pangolins have to curl their front paws over to walk on the ground. Some pangolin species live in trees; other species live on the ground.

World Status Key
Least ConcernLeast Concern Near ThreatenedNear Threatened VulnerableVulnerable EndangeredEndangered Critically EndangeredCritically Endangered extinct in the wildExtinct in Wild extinctExtinct
Status and range is taken from ICUN Redlist. If no status is listed, there is not enough data to establish status.

US Status Key
Threatened in US Threatened in US Threatened in New Hampshire Threatened in NH Endangered in US Endangered in US Endangered in NH Endangered in NH Introduced Introduced
Status taken from US Fish and Wildlife and NH Fish and Game

New Hampshire Species

 

 North/Central American Species

None

  None

Species Around the World

Location Key
Africa Africa Antarctica Asia Asia Australia Australia/Oceania Europe Europe North America North America South America South America New Hampshire Species NH

Thick-tailed Pangolin - Manis crassicaudata Near Threatened Asia
Philippine Pangolin - Manis culionensis Near Threatened Asia
Sunda Pangolin - Manis javanica Endangered Asia
Chinese Pangolin - Manis pentadactyla Endangered Asia
  Tree Pangolin - Phataginus tricuspis Near Threatened Africa
Giant Ground Pangolin - Smutsia gigantea Near Threatened Africa
Temminck's Ground Pangolin - Smutsia temminckii Least Concern Africa
Long-tailed Pangolin - Uromanis tetradactyla Least Concern Africa

Additional Information

Resource Key
profile Profile Photos Photos Video Video Audio Audio Interactive

Pangolins - profile Photos
In some species, the pangolin's tongue can be 16 inches in length.
Source: African Wildlife Foundation Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: No

Pangolins - profile Photos
Poaching for illegal wildlife trade and habitat loss have made pangolins one of the most endangered mammal groups in the world.
Source: Save Pangolins Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: No

Plight of the Pangolin - Video
CNN's Dan Rivers reports on the threats facing the pangolin.
Source: CNN Intended Audience: General Reading Level: N/A Teacher Section: No

Pangolin - Video
Learn more about the pangolin in this footage from Botswana, Africa.
Source: National Geographic Intended Audience: General Reading Level: N/Al Teacher Section: No

Chinese Pangolin - Manis pentadactyla profile Photos Endangered Asia
The Chinese pangolin is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Chinese Pangolin - Manis pentadactyla profile Photos Endangered Asia
The Chinese pangolin is hunted for its for its meat and its skin and scales.
Source: EDGE Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Chinese Pangolin - Manis pentadactyla profile Photos Endangered Asia
The Chinese pangolin female will protect her young by curling up around them.
Source: World Wildlife Fund India Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: No

Giant Ground Pangolin - Smutsia gigantea profile Photos Near Threatened Africa
The giant ground pangolin is found in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania,and Uganda.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Long-tailed Pangolin - Uromanis tetradactyla profile Photos Least Concern Africa
The long-tailed pangolin is also known as the black-bellied pangolin is found in Cameroon, Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Long-tailed Pangolin - Uromanis tetradactyla profile Photos Least Concern Africa
The long-tailed pangolin has a long, prehensile tail that is twice as long as its body.
Source: Animal Diversity Web Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Philippine Pangolin - Manis culionensis profile Near Threatened Asia
The Philippine pangolin is found on four islands in the Philippines.
Source:
Animal Diversity Web Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Sunda Pangolin - Manis javanica Photos Endangered Asia
The Sunda pangolin is found in Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Sunda Pangolin - Manis javanica profile Photos Endangered Asia
The Sunda pangolin is also known as the Malayan or Javan Pangolin. It spends the day in burrows or tree cavities.
Source: Ecology Asia Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: No

Sunda Pangolin - Manis javanica profile Photos Endangered Asia
The Sunda pangolin eats ants and termites.
Source: EDGE Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Sunda Pangolin - Manis javanica profile Photos Endangered Asia
Sunda pangolins are sometimes found in pairs, but are mainly solitary.
Source: Animal Diversity Web Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Temminck's Ground Pangolin - Smutsia temminckii profile Photos Video Least Concern Africa
Temminck's ground pangolin is found in Angola, Botswana, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania,Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Temminck's Ground Pangolin - Smutsia temminckii profile Photos Least Concern Africa
Temminck's pangolins spend most of their time on the ground, but they can climb and they move very well in the water.
Source: Animal Diversity Web Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Thick-tailed Pangolin - Manis crassicaudata profile Photos Near Threatened Asia
The thick-tailed pangolin is found in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Thick-tailed Pangolin - Manis crassicaudata profile Photos Near Threatened Asia
The thick-tailed pangolin is also known as the Indian pangolin. It is nocturnal and spends most of the day in its burrows or among the rocks.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Tree Pangolin - Phataginus tricuspis profile Photos Video Near Threatened Africa
The tree pangolin is also known as the three-cusped pangolin or the African white-bellied pangolin. It is found in Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia.
Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Tree Pangolin - Phataginus tricuspis profile Photos Near Threatened Africa
The tree pangolin can close its ears and nostrils, and its thick eyelids protect the eyes from the angry ants.
Source: San Diego Zoo Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes

Tree Pangolin - Phataginus tricuspis profile Photos Near Threatened Africa
The tree pangolin spends time on the ground and in trees.
Source: Animal Diversity Web Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes